Hypertension in Children and Adolescents

High blood pressure is found to be a growing health issue that is often ignored by physicians. Regular blood pressure values for children and adolescents are calculated based on their age, sex, and height, and are available in conventional tables. With renal parenchymal disease and renovascular disease being the most common, a secondary etiology of hypertension is much more likely to be found in children than in adults. Primary hypertension in children is strongly correlated with Overweight and obesity. A history and physical examination are required to draw out the underlying medical disorder in children newly diagnosed with hypertension. Children diagnosed with hypertension should also be examined for other risk factors such as cardiovascular disease, including diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia. They should also be evaluated for target organ damage with a retinal examination and echocardiography. Generally hypertension in children is treated by making lifestyle changes which include weight loss for those who are overweight or obese, regular physical activity, a healthy low-sodium diet, and avoidance of tobacco and alcohol. Children diagnosed with target organ damage, diabetes, symptomatic hypertension, secondary hypertension, or persistent hypertension should be treated with antihypertensive medications in addition to nonpharmacologic measures. Antihypertensive medications in children include Thiazide diuretics, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitors which are considered safe, effective, and well tolerated. High blood pressure in childhood generally leads to adult hypertension which is the leading cause of premature deaths around the world. This session will cover the emerging issues related to hypertension in children and adolescents, treatments and therapies available and the recent research findings.

 

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